Data Set Description

The Longitudinal Survey on Rural Urban Migration in China (RUMiC) consists of three parts: the Urban Household Survey, the Rural Household Survey and the Migrant Household Survey. It was initiated by a group of researchers at the Australian National University, the University of Queensland and the Beijing Normal University and was supported by the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), which provides the Scientific Use Files. The financial support for RUMiC was obtained from the Australian Research Council, the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID), the Ford Foundation, IZA and the Chinese Foundation of Social Sciences.

RUMiC was established to study the patterns and effects of migration in China and was designed to provide a longitudinal dataset covering a five-year time span.
It collects data on three populations:
- Rural households both with and without migrants (through the Rural Household Survey)
- Urban resident households (through the Urban Household Survey)
- Rural-to-urban migrants (through the Urban Migrant Survey)

Research Focus:
The research topics of the RUMiC comprise the welfare status of migrants: their jobs, incomes, physical and mental health, their children?s education and health, and the extent to which they assimilate into their city communities. The questionnaires obtained individual- and household-level information.

The individual-level component covers four areas:
1) Household composition
2) Adult education
3) Adult employment
4) Children

The household head answered questions covering:
1) Social networks
2) Lifecycle events
3) Household income
4) Household assets
5) Housing conditions
6) Information on the rural home village

The employment section focuses on the labor market performance of adults. Different questions were asked to salaried workers, the self-employed and unemployed. For the Migrant Survey, selected questions were also asked regarding migrants? first job in the city.

Children's module surveys children aged 0-15 or over 15 but still at school. The Migrant Survey covers both children who live in the city with their parents and those left behind in the countryside. The Rural Survey only covers children whose parents did not migrate. The same questions are used in both surveys.

The social network section contained several sub-sections covering also the network of spouses not present in the household, of children aged over 15, of the parents of both the household head and the spouse. Questions also cover the employment and education status of up to five closest contacts.

Spatial Coverage:
The survey locations are primarily based on whether a province is one of the major sending or receiving regions.

The Rural Household Survey was conducted in 9 provinces: Anhui, Chongqing, Guangdong, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Sichuan, and Zhejiang.

The Urban Migrant Survey was conducted in the following 15 cities, which are provincial capital cities or other major migrant receiving cities: Bengbu, Chengdu, Chongqing, Dongguan, Guangzhou, Hefei, Hangzhou, Luoyang, Nanjing, Ningbo, Shanghai, Shenzen, Wuhan, Wuxi, Zhengzhou.

The Urban Household Survey was conducted in 19 cities and includes the following additional cities to the Urban Migrant Survey: Anyang, Jiande, Leshan and Mianyang.


Tracking:
The RUMiC survey is designed to provide a longitudinal dataset covering a four-year time span, tracking respondents so long as they remain in the surveyed cities and villages. The Rural and Urban Household Surveys follow a normal tracking method used in any longitudinal surveys with subjects having permanent living addresses. In general, the attrition rate for these two populations is within the normal range. Between the first and the second waves, the attrition rate for the Rural Household Survey was 1% and for the Urban Household Survey was 5.7%. The attrition rates for these two samples increased between the second and the third waves due to the change in survey conductor, but they still remain in a low range.

The tracking for the Urban Migrant Survey, however, is more difficult. The pre-test results indicate that migrant workers on average stay in a city for around 3 years, and none who lived in a residential address stays for more than a year. To ensure the tracking result, the survey team recorded the individual migrants? work and home addresses and other contact details in the cities as well as their home villages. We also recorded the phone numbers of three close relatives or friends of each interviewee so that we could track them even if they and their households moved. In addition, the team designed a tracking incentive scheme of three lotteries each year, with prizes from 50 to 2000 Yuan. Despite these efforts, the attrition rate for the Urban Migrant Survey has been very high.

The survey does not track returning migrants due to high costs. Between the first and the second wave, partly due to the high mobility and partly due to the global financial crisis, the attrition rate for the Urban Migrant Survey was 64%. In the subsequent waves the attrition rate gradually came down with the second to the third wave attrition rate being 52% and the third to the fourth wave rate being 43%.

The RUMiC survey was part of the RUMiCI project, which included surveys conducted in Indonesia. The Indonesian datasets will be soon publicly available. For detailed information see http://rse.anu.edu.au/rumici/;

For detailed information on sampling design and tracking (including methodology and implementation manuals), see:

- Gong, X., Kong, S. T., Li, S., and Meng, X. (2008) Rural-urban migrants: a driving force for growth, in Ligang Song and Wing Thye Woo (eds) China's Dilemma, Canberra: Asia Pacific Press;
- Meng, Kong, and Zhang (2010) How much do we know about the impact of the economic downturn on the employment of migrants?, ADBI Working Paper Series No. 194.
- Kong, S. T. (2010): Rural-Urban Migration in China: Survey Design and Implementation. In: Meng, Xin and Manning, Chris (Eds.) with Shi, Li and Effendi, Tadjuddin The Great Migration: Rural-Urban Migration in China and Indonesia, Edward Elgar Publ. Ltd. 2010.

Selection Method:

In China the Rural and Urban Household Surveys are conducted by China's National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), and the migrant survey by Datasea Marketing Research, a survey organization. The Rural Household Survey covers nine provinces, and the Urban Migrant Survey covers 15 cities in nine provinces or metropolitan areas.

The sampling design of the Rural and Urban Household Surveys are based on that of the Annual Rural Household Survey and Annual Urban Household Survey conducted by the NBS.

The sampling design of the Migrant Survey was a team effort. In particular, Mr. Liangming Lu, Prof. Xin Meng, Dr. Xiaodong Gong, Prof. Paul Frijters, Dr. Tao Kong, Dr. Tue Gorgens and Dr. Stephen Horn all contributed to the design.

The distribution of the sample size across the 15 cities is loosely associated with the overall population size of the city. Within each city the sampling frame is defined on the bases of workplaces rather than residence. This is mainly because a sizable proportion of migrant workers in China live in workplace dormitories, construction sites and other workplaces. Thus, the residential based sampling will be biased due to the omission of this group of migrants.

All businesses, including street vendors, in randomly selected enumeration areas within defined city boundaries are included. During a listing process the total number of workers and the total number of migrant workers in each workplace are recorded. This allows the survey team to estimate the total size of the migrant worker population in each city. The listing-based information on the size of the migrant population is designed to be representative of that city and to provide a sampling frame for subsequent random sampling.

Based on the listing data, a simple random sample of a requisite number of migrant workers for each city and within each workplace is selected. The enumerators are given the number of people to be selected within each workplace. They then return to the workplaces and, based on a randomly selected birth month, select the final sample migrant workers. Once individual migrants are selected, the enumerator makes an appointment with them to interview the individuals and their family.

Date Created: 2013-07-22

Scope of Data Set

Subject Terms: ACCIDENTS AT WORK, AGE, APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT, APPOINTMENT TO JOB, APPRENTICESHIP, ARMY OFFICERS, ASSETS, BONUS PAYMENTS, BUSINESS OWNERSHIP, CANTEENS, CHILD CARE, CHILD DAY CARE, CHILD WORKERS, CHILDREN, CLOTHING, COMMODITIES, COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT, CURRICULUM, DISABILITIES, ECONOMIC ACTIVITY, EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMES, EDUCATIONAL TESTS, EMOTIONAL STATES, EMPLOYMENT HISTORY, ETHNIC MINORITIES, FAMILY INCOME, FINANCIAL COMMITMENTS, FOOD, FRINGE BENEFITS, GENDER, GRANTS, HEADS OF HOUSEHOLD, HEALTH, HEALTH EXPENDITURE, HEIGHT (PHYSIOLOGY), HETEROSEXUAL RELATIONSHIPS, HOME HELP, HOUSEHOLD HEAD'S ECONOMIC ACTIVITY, HOUSEHOLD HEAD'S OCCUPATION, HOUSEHOLD HEAD'S WAGES, HOUSEHOLD INCOME, HOUSING FINANCE, INCOME, INDUSTRIAL INJURIES, INDUSTRIES, INSURANCE, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT, INVESTMENT, INVESTMENT RETURN, JOB CHARACTERISTICS, JOB HUNTING, JOB REQUIREMENTS, LABOUR MIGRATION, LOANS, MARITAL STATUS, MEALS, MEDICAL INSURANCE, MEDICAL TREATMENT METHODS, MENTAL DISORDERS, MENTAL HEALTH, NURSERY SCHOOLS, OCCUPATIONAL TRAINING, OFFSPRING, OVERTIME, PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIP, PARTNERSHIPS (PERSONAL), PATIENTS, PENSION BENEFITS, PENSIONS, PERSONAL PROPERTY LAW, PLACE OF RESIDENCE, POOR PERSONS, PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION, PREGNANCY COMPLICATIONS, PUBLIC SERVICES, PURCHASING, RIGHTS AND PRIVILEGES, SAVINGS, SCHOOL-LEAVING AGE, SECONDARY SCHOOL LEAVING, SELF-EMPLOYED, SHIFT WORK, SIBLINGS, SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS, SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS, SPOUSE'S AGE, SPOUSE'S ECONOMIC ACTIVITY, SPOUSE'S EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND, SPOUSE'S EMPLOYMENT, SPOUSE'S OCCUPATION, SPOUSE'S OCCUPATIONAL STATUS, SPOUSE'S WAGES, STATUS IN EMPLOYMENT, TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT, TRAINING, TRANSFER PAYMENTS, TRANSPORT, UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFIT, WAGES, WEALTHY PERSONS, WEIGHT (PHYSIOLOGY), WORKING TIME, MENTALLY VULNERABLE PERSONS, HOUSEHOLD MIGRATION

Time Periods: 2008 - 2009

Citation(s)

The Longitudinal Survey on Rural Urban Migration in China (RUMiC) consists of three parts: the Urban Household Survey, the Rural Household Survey and the Migrant Household Survey. It was initiated by a group of researchers at the Australian National University, the University of Queensland and the Beijing Normal University and was supported by the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), which provides the Scientific Use Files. The financial support for RUMiC was obtained from the Australian Research Council, the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID), the Ford Foundation, IZA and the Chinese Foundation of Social Sciences.

In text this should be the citation.

Institute of Labor Economics (IZA). Australian National University, the University of Queensland and the Beijing Normal University (2014), Longitudinal Survey on Rural Urban Migration in China (RUMiC) (yyyy – yyyy years of data suing in your analysis). International Data Service Center of IZA (IDSC). Version 1.0. doi:10.15185/izadp.7680.1

In references this should be the citation.

IZA Discussion Paper(s)

Availability:

Restricted Access


Investigator(s):
  1. Institute for the Study of Labor, IZA
  2. Australian National University, ANU
  3. Beijing Normal University
Type:

Longitudinal survey data

Source:

Face-to-face interview

Right:

Due to the confidential nature of the RUMiC microdata, direct access is only provided through research contracts. Access is restricted to universities and research institutes. Please contact IDSC(at)IZA.ORG for any access requests.

Coverage:

Districts, Country, Rural areas, Urban areas


Geographic Coverage:
 CHINA